Wednesday, March 29, 2006

Op Hifazat-II

Operation Hifazat-II (Manipur)

The state of Manipur lies to the south of Nagaland and abuts southern Assam from the west—to Manipur’s east is Myanmar. Ninety percent of the former princely state is covered by hill ranges; except for the Imphal valley, where the majority population of Meitis live. The tribes of the hill districts received protection of their land and job reservations under the Scheduled Tribes status (denied to the Meitis)—to cap the grievances of the Meitis statehood was not granted to Manipur until 1972. The early insurgents of the United National Liberation Front (UNLF) were defeated and pacified as a result of the Bangladesh liberation war in 1971, where their government-in-exile had been based. Some of their cadres received training, and a socialist indoctrination, from the Chinese and formed the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) in 1978. Other groups with socialist leanings (PREPAK, KCP) also became active forcing the hand of the central government—Operation Hifazat (1980-82) defeated and dispersed these groups. Militancy was revived in the nineties after intelligence agencies of Pakistan and Bangladesh became active in the northeast. The hill tribes formed their own insurgent groups and fought the Meitis—and each other. Operation Hifazat II has continued through the nineties to pacify the troubled state.

Orbat:

The Eastern Command’s 3 Corps, headquartered at Dimapur (Nagaland), looks after the states of Tripura, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, and the hilly area of lower Assam. The Corps comprises the 57 Mountain Division at Silchar and the 23 Infantry Division at Ranchi (in faraway Bihar) supported by an artillery brigade. In 2001-02 the entire 3 Corps was moved to the western border for Operation Parakram (with the 57 Mountain Division going to J&K) but has since returned after the end of that standoff. This move was made possible by the abundant police and paramilitary forces present in the northeastern states—Manipur has 19 battalions of the Assam Rifles, 8 battalions of the CRPF, and 3 battalions of the BSF. The state police are supported by the locally raised Manipur Rifles and the India Reserve Battalions (IRB). http://www.imphal.cjb.net/news/news_item.asp?NewsID=10&m=2&y=2005
Assam Rifles:
Of all the paramilitary forces the Assam Rifles is closest to the Indian Army in its organization, training, and equipment. It has fought in all major wars and operations from the Burma campaign of World War II to the proxy war in J&K. The AR is under the operational control of the army and is led primarily by army officers on deputation—its headquarters are in Shillong where the DG Assam Rifles, an officer of the rank of Lt. General, oversees seven range headquarters across the northeast. (See http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE4-5/sharma.html)

Major Events (Year 2004):
(See detailed map http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/images/maps/bigmap/Manipur.jpg)
note: in Manipur the word used to describe a militant/insurgent is “underground” (UG)

1. Jan 01 e-pao.net: In a late evening encounter with a team of Imphal West district commandoes a suspected underground member has been gunned down.
2. Jan 03 Kanglaonline: In an encounter with the 33 Assam Rifles and the People Liberation Army (PLA), one of the latter’s cadre holding the post of project officer was killed.
3. Jan 06 Kanglaonline: One CRPF personnel of the 14th Bn stationed at Tuibong Poultry Farm was killed when unidentified underground cadres attacked personnel of the CRPF on ROP duty near Churachandpur police station.
4. Jan 07 The Kangla Online: Three armed activists of the banned Kanglei Yaol Kanna Lup, were killed by the Manipur police commandos at Heinganglok in Thoubal district of Manipur. Three more youths of KYKL were killed in an encounter with the police at Heirok Part-III in Thoubal district.
5. Jan 16 The North East Tribune: one suspected underground was killed by troops of 28 Assam Rifles posted at Thoubal in an encounter near Charangpat village.
6. Jan 17 Kanglaonline: A jawan of the 37th Assam Rifles was killed in an ambush by UNLF. The ambush occurred when AR jawans who were on ROP duty along Indo-Myanmar road were approaching Khudengtabi village.
7. Jan 20 The North East Tribune: Keeping aside ideological differences the United National Liberation Front (UNLF) of Manipur has openly lauded the NSCN (IM) for nabbing James Kuki, the alleged mastermind behind the kidnapping and murder of Lungnila Elizabeth. Kanglaonline: Two rebels suspected to be the activists of the valley insurgent outfit were killed in an alleged encounter with the Manipur police commandos. At least two underground activists, one BSF assistant sub-inspector, one state police constable and a girl were killed while a woman and one police personnel sustained bullet injuries in two separate encounters between underground activists and security forces today.
8. Jan 21 Kanglaonline: A hard core activist of the Kuki Revolutionary Army, KRA identified as Lalminthang Chongloi, 27, of Taphal village was killed in an encounter with troops of the 14 Assam Rifles early this morning at Changoubung village.
9. Four injured in Imphal market blast IMPHAL, JAN 27 (PTI) http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=197301

10. Feb 03 Kanglaonline: Two suspected ultras were killed in the counter insurgency campaigns of the Manipur police commandos in the board daylight at the Chingmeirong firing range. The North East Tribune: The BJP Manipur unit has appealed to the KYKL to reconsider its move to ban the activities of the party while demanding the removal of party president and Lok Sabha MP, Th.Chaoba from the BJP.
11. Feb 04 e-pao.net: two activists of the PREPAK were killed at Thangmeiband Yumnam Leikai while an Assam Rifles jawan of the 36th battalion shot himself with his service weapon at Tamenglong district.
12. Feb 05 The North East Tribune: A PLA activist reportedly attacked and stuck two police personnel with a spade, including the commando unit officer in charge N. Rajen(43) and constable Md. Amir Khan(24) at the Thoubal district police station when he was led to his cell after questioning.
13. Feb 12 Kanglaonline: Bishenpur SP, T Dhanakumar’s convoy of a Maruti Gypsy and a bullet proof vehicle was attacked by cadres of an unidentified underground outfit at Thongjaorok bridge. In the attack on the SP, at least 10 persons including five police personnel escorting the SP Bishenpur and five civilians were injured during the attack, according to official sources. A heavy encounter took place between the combined forces of IRB and Bishnupur police with unknown armed militants at Ngangkha Lawai, under Morang police station.
14. Feb 18 Kanglaonline: Two jawans were killed when cadres of PLA attacked a column of 44 CRPF posted at Ethai who were conducting ROP on foot along Moirang Khunou, 4 km south of Moirang police station. At least three civilians were also hospitalised after some personnel of the 44 CRPF posted at Moirang Khunou electricity campus thrashed the locals following the attack. In a landmark development, the government of India and Myanmar agreed to conduct joint survey of the disputed boundary pillars along the Indo-Myanmar border.
15. Feb 24 The North East Tribune: Twenty Bangladeshi national have been arrested by the state police for entering Manipur without proper documents from Eastern Star Hotel, Nagamapal in Imphal city on Saturday.
16. Feb 25 Kanglaonline: In a combined operation with the Garhwal Rifles, Assam Rifles troops stationed at the Tulihal Airport complex shot dead one UG cadre some 2 kms east of Patsoi police station. While carrying out another operation in the Toubungkhok area, troops of Garhwal Rifles noticed the suspicious movement of an individual and on being challenged the UG activist started firing at the troops taking the cover of the high roadside bundh. The youth was killed when the security personnel retaliated. Two civilians were injured by stray bullets in an encounter between two underground groups that took place around 7 pm last night at Sugnu. Fall out of a desperate attempt of merging all the KNF factions into one unit
17. Feb 27 e-pao.net: A PIL will be filed at the Gauhati High Court for giving false promises to the people of Manipur on the Kangla issue the Convener of the People's Movement Committee, Manipur (PMCM) RK Ranendrajit today said speaking to the media. He narrated the long history of the movement to restore the Kangla to the people of Manipur. One prime land after another has been allotted to the Assam Rifles he said. The Assam Rifles has been demanding the land in lieu of Kangla however after the land is allotted the Assam Rifles has not evicted the Kangla on one pretext or other he said. In another incident personnel of 14 Assam Rifles shot dead two suspected underground activists at N Songlung village about 20 kilometres west of Saikul police station.
18. Feb 28 e-pao.net: A suspected PLA activist was killed in an encounter with personnel of 33 Assam Rifles near Wabagai Buffalo Farm about six kilometres west of Kakching police station. A Division bench of the Gauhati high Court today asked, the Ministry of Home Affairs to give Rs 7 lakhs as monetary compensations to some villagers of Sagang village who were victimized by the 23 Bn CRPF in two separate incidents.

19. Mar 04 e-pao.net: Personnel of Assam Rifles have shot dead a youth at Thoubal Okram Leikai after picking him up from his house. The deceased youth is identified as one Md Rahaman son of Md Ibothem of Thoubal Moijing Meena Bazar. However Assam Rifles Spokesman in a statement said that the killed youth was a hardcore militant of the PLA and added that he was killed when the troops came upon a group of militants extorting money. Heavily armed UGs attacked the private house of Chief Minister O Ibobi Singh late last night at Thoubal Athokpam under Thoubal Dist injuring two IRB personnel of the 3rd Bn.
20. Mar 08 The Assam Tribune: jawans of the 28th Assam Rifles launched a search operation in Charangpat Kshetri Leikai killing three militants.
21. Mar 16 Kanglaonline: personnel of the 19th Rajput Rifles, posted at Leimakhong gunned down, Khumanthem Naoba alias Ajit, of the PLA.
22. Mar 18 The North East Tribune: Go back Indian army, Stop genocide, remove AFSPA from Manipur, stop arrest of Manipuris and punish the guilty army personnel slogans rent the air of the Imphal city as thousands of the public took out a protest rally against the Army for the killings of 12 youths in the state during the past two weeks.
23. Mar 19 e-pao.net: Three persons including an innocent civilian were killed during an encounter between troops of 33 Assam Rifles and well armed UGs at Wangboo village.
24. Mar 20 e-pao.net: United Kuki Liberation' Front (UKLF) has clarified that Sgt Major Samukcham Okendro of PREPAK was killed in a shoot out between the cadres of UKLF and PREPAK at Lairoifai on March 15 following a misunderstanding between the cadres of the two parties.
25. Mar 25 Kanglaonline: a team of Imphal east police arrested one KYKL activist while two activist of PLA were arrested by Imphal East police yesterday. The troops of the 17th Assam Rifles also arrested one activist of the underground PLA from Heirangoithong.
26. Mar 26 Hindustan Times: Assam Rifles personnel of 8th battalion rushed to Thanga Heisnam Leikai area following reports that some militants were roaming in the area. As paramilitary forces started mopping up the area after it was cordoned off, militants opened fire. In the exchange of fire that lasted an hour, an unidentified militant was killed and a jawan was injured.
27. Mar 27 Kanglaonline: Two personnel of the 8 Assam Rifles were killed in a shoot out with suspected UG elements in the wee hours today at Thanga Heisnam Hanjabam Leikai in Bishnupur district.
28. Mar 29 Kanglaonline: A Hmar People’s Convention, HPC (D) militant held captive by the Zomi Revolutionary Army, ZRA for his alleged involvement in extortion escaped by snatching a gun from a captor nearby when the ZRA men were busy with lunchtime prayer. Suddenly, four ZRA cadres giving a hot chase to the fleeing captive were rained down with bullets by HPC (D) militants waiting in ambush and one Zamkhosuan of the ZRA was killed. Moments later, a large crowd appeared from the Renkai Muallum area and caught two ZRA cadres who were then butchered to death inside a house.

29. Apr 07 e-pao.net: Red Army cadres of the underground revolutionary outfit PREPAK launched a daring attack at the post of the 17th Assam Rifles at Kangla. The Assam Tribune: troops of the 12th Assam Rifles killed one member of the Revolutionary People’s Party (RPP) in an encounter at Loukhong in Manipur’s Imphal East district.
30. Apr 09 e-pao.net: Hundreds of Kuki men, women and children fleeing from the deadly clashes in Karbi Anglong between the Karbi militant group UPDS and the Kuki group KRA, are pouring into Dimapur town and in Senapati and Churachandpur districts of Manipur in search of safe shelter. Troops of 12 Assam Rifles killed one hardcore militant near Nongdam village.
31. Apr 10 Kanglaonline: To curb the UG threats, three CRPF companies from Khuga project site, one section each of Manipur Rifles from Maphou dam and from Dolaithabi project sites have been called out for adding to the formerly arranged security set up for the ensuing Lok Sabha election in the state.
32. Apr 13 Kanglaonline: The Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup, KYKL has announced the death sentence for one drug traffickers identified as Sorokhaibam Shanti apprehended by its cadres implementing Operation New Kangleipak, ONK in the state. The other three which included a woman will be released after shots in their legs. The outfit says it has been taking up serious actions against drug trafficking since November 15, 2002 to save the youths of the state.
33. More than a year later, in April 2004, another 'area domination exercise' was conducted by the Army in Sajik Tampak, just before the elections from the outer Manipur constituency to the Indian parliament. Amidst calls for a boycott of the elections by the militants, the operations were aimed at neutralising the influence of the underground. http://www.ocnus.net/cgi-bin/exec/view.cgi?archive=57&num=14924
34. Apr 21 Kanglaonline: The underground UNLF has claimed responsibility for yesterday’s attack on BSF personnel at Tuilaphai village in Churachandpur district. The lone BSF personnel killed has been identified as Constable Ashok Kumar of Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh.
35. Apr 22 e-pao.net: The five security personnel were injured when suspected underground members ambushed a combined force convoy at Chalong Lamkhai. The injured include three Assam rifles and two 2nd IRB personnel.
36. Apr 24 The Assam Tribune: Three police commandos were killed and another seriously injured in an ambush by Manipur ultras at Khordak area in interior Bishenpur district.
37. Apr 25 Kanglaonline: Soon after arrival at the 57 Mountain Division headquarters at Leimakhong, Dimapur based 3 Corps Commander Lt Gen Daljit was engaged in a meeting with 10 Sector Commander Brigadier R Singh and 9 Sector Commander Brig EJ Kochekkan. Terming the ongoing conflict as only the beginning the Army official stated that more concerted attacks would be launched to establish a permanent Army post at Sajik Tampak by dislodging the underground organizations' camp at the area. E-pao.net: Unidentified gunmen gunned down former State DGP Lairenjam Jugeshwor at Mayai Koibi Chabungbam Leikai.
38. Apr 26 The North East Tribune: Three insurgents were gunned down while another was seriously injured during pre-poll offensives by the Manipur police commandos and IRB jawans at Yairipok Yambem in Thoubal district.
39. Apr 27 e-pao.net: A team of Imphal East district commandos gunned down three UGs and injured one during a fierce encounter at Yairipok Yambem.
40. Apr 30 The Assam Tribune: Manipur Chief Minister Okram Ibobi has demanded immediate fencing and proper guarding of “porous” Indo-Myanmar border to curb the anti-social as well as anti-national activities along the international boundary.

41. May 04 Assam Rifles in an encounter lasting five hours with militants of the Kuki Revolutionary Army (KRA) shot dead seven of them at Molnom village, in Ukhrul Hill district of Manipur last night. http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=219396
42. May 07 Kanglaonline: Three battalions of the Indian Army; 7th Sikh Light Infantry, 9th Rajput and 27th Madras Regiment have been stationed at Sugnu, Chakpikarong and Sajik Tampak respectively completing a brigade formation in the area. Confirming the installment of 44th Mountain Brigade in the area, Brigadier OS Malhi who took charge on May 1 as commander of the newly installed brigade while speaking to reporters at Chakpikarong yesterday said the Army will be permanently stationed in the area. However, the Brigadier denied carrying out any special operations beyond Sajik Tampak. “We are here only to help the state government and to let the government machineries which have remained defunct since past few years to revive,” Malhi said.
43. May 19 Kanglaonline: Vice chairman Nongdren of the underground PREPAK was reportedly wounded during a fierce encounter with Indian security forces along the Bangladesh-Tripura border on May 15. The Assam Tribune: Troops of 13 Assam Rifles under the supervision of Brigadier R N Bhattacharjee, commander of 10 Sector, seized a huge quantity of materials belonging to an underground outfit operating in the State. The statement of the PIB further stated that the search operation which was conducted under the code name “Operation Talash” took more than 5 hours to complete.
44. May 20 Kanglaonline: A heavy exchange of fire took place between suspected valley based UGs and a combined team comprising of Bishenpur district commandos and IRB at Patpal under Bishenpur district police station. E-pao.net: The Supreme Court has ruled out the proposal to arm Forest Guards in Manipur and other North Eastern States of India.
45. May 26 e-pao.net: family members of two youths from kangpokpi area killed by personnel of 18 Assam Rifles, refused to take back the bodies alleging both were killed after arrest from their homes.
46. May 27 Kanglaonline: The Assam Rifles authorities have stated that Elam Nabachandra Singh alias Ngouba, self styled lieutenant of the underground PLA, was apprehended in a swift operation.
47. May 31 The North East Tribune: Normal life came to a standstill in Manipur today in an 18-hour bandh called by the Manipur Forward Youth Front (MFYF). The bandh call is given against state cabinet decision to extend the disturbed area status under Armed Forces Special Powers Act, 1958, from June 1. Kanglaonline: The international border gate no. 2 connecting the border towns of Moreh and Tamu was closed down for some time this afternoon following tension in the area over the thrashing of an Indian citizen by Myanmarese security personnel. The tension subsided and normal cross-border trade resumed after the Myanmarese security authorities at Tamu apologised to the Moreh public.

48. Jun 01 Kanglaonline: One ZRA activist, Tulianthang Baite and Isaak Singson, a KNF cadre who were arrested from their respective homes by 19 Garhwal Rifles were handed over to CCpur police station. One activist of the PLA, Soibam Sanjoy Singh (23) who was caught from his residence by the 10 sector, Assam Rifles was handed over to the Sekmai police station. An Assam Rifles JCO, posted as guard commander at the Moreh international border gate no. 2, connecting the border town with Namphalong market of Tamu, was shot dead by unidentified armed men late this afternoon at the border gate. The victim is identified as naik subedar K Binod Kumar, hailing from Himachal Pradesh.
49. Jun 02 e-pao.net: The Army has ordered an inquiry into the alleged gunning down of one person at Senjam Khunou on May 31 by 19 Rajput Rifles. Combined team of Bishnupur police commando and IRB personnel claimed to have apprehended 12 Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA) cadres at Churachandpur district while another commando party gunned down two underground members at Wangoi area. The Assam Tribune: Though the Assam Rifles (AR) has been entrusted with the job of guarding the India-Myanmar border, it would take some time for the AR to take over the job and it would have to raise new battalions for the purpose. The Government of India is also examining the feasibility of construction of border fencing on the routes known to be frequently used by the militants. However, it would not be possible to fence the entire border because of the terrain, security sources admitted.
50. Jun 03 The Telegraph: The army today instituted an inquiry into allegations that a relative of Manipur food and civil supplies minister Pheiroijam Parijat Singh was killed in a fake encounter. E-pao.net: the Guwahati High Court Imphal Bench has today issued notices to the Centre and the Assam Rifles on the killing of one youth by Assam Rifles personnel in an alleged fake encounter during Holi festival this year. The petition said that in the wee hours of March 9 2004 personnel of 17 Assam Rifles picked up Debeshore from his residence without issuing any arrest memo.
51. Jun 04 e-pao.net: The Gauhati High Court has asked the Army authority to pay Rs 1.5 lakhs as compensation for killing a person identified as T Moni at Tonsen Lamkhai after being arrested by troopers of 14 Sikh Light infantry in 1998.
52. Jun 05 kanglaonline: At least six state security personnel were wounded, some of them seriously, in a running encounter this forenoon with well armed underground fighters in the vicinity of Khoirentak and Harmantlank villages.
53. Jun 07 Kanglaonline: Troops of the 38 Assam Rifles had an encounter with suspected KNF(MC) cadres at Bungte Chiru, 8 km north west of Bishnupur police station, killing two suspected cadres. Three suspected KNF members were also nabbed by the security forces. A militant believed to belong to the UKLF, was killed by troops of the 19 Assam Rifles at Thawai Kuki village.
54. Jun 11 Kanglaonline: Personnel of the 33 AR posted at Khongjom Kheba Ching handed over the body of an unidentified suspected UG to the Kakching police station.
55. Jun 13 e-pao.net: Chief of the Army’s Eastern Command Lt Gen JS Mukherjee said Bhutan type militant flush out operation depends on the mutual policy of both the Governments, which does not exist so far with Myanmar and Bangladesh. He was addressing ex-servicemen at the 2 Assam Rifles Ground, Kohima on Friday.



56. July 07 3 suspected cadres of the underground United Kuki Liberation Front, UKLF were eliminated by a combined team of the Imphal west district police commandos and the 12th Assam Rifles in a pre-dawn shootout today in the Langol reserve forest area.
57. Manorama Killing: July 12 Manipur Forward Youth Front (MFYF) has called the 48-hour Manipur bandh in protest the alleged killing of a 30-year-old woman, Thangjam Monorama Devi, by personnel of the 17th Battalion of Assam Rifles yesterday. Meanwhile, official sources said Monorama Devi was a former member of banned People's Liberation Army (PLA). http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=234632
58. Jul 16 e-pao.net: UNLF attacked the II IRB post at Ngangkhalawai; there is no report of any injury or casualty of security personnel. The second attack was launched at Moirang Khunou Power House post of ‘A’ Company of the 132 CRPF. Under barrel grenade launcher and rocket launcher were used during the attack. No casualties are reported. A number of women folk, bared all in front of the Western Gate of Kangla this morning, where the 9 Sector Assam Rifles and 17 AR are housed, to lodge their protest against the killing of Thangjam Manorama.
59. Jul 17 The North East Tribune: The state government had asked the Assam Rifles authorities to hand over the three personnel who signed the memo served to the family of Th. Monorama Devi at the time of her arrest. Chief Minister O Ibobi Singh said indefinite curfew in Imphal and Greater Imphal areas had been imposed to protect public property and lives.
60. Jul 18 e-pao.net: One CRPF man was killed and nine others injured last night during an exchange of fire between suspected UG group and the 14th Bn CRPF stationed at Lamka Community Hall, Upper Lamka.
61. Jul 20 e-pao.net: Lt Gen Daljeet Singh, GOC 3 Corps, while reaffirming that guilty personnel involved in the custodial death of Manorama would be punished according to the law of the land, has informed that the Court of Inquiry instituted to probe the killing is proceeding in full swing at Kangla. Commenting on the Judicial Inquiry instituted by the State Govt to probe the circumstances leading to the death of Manorama, the Corps Commander reiterated that the army and the Assam Rifles authorities would extend full cooperation to the probe. Following the continuing agitation two battalions belonging to the RAPF 101 Bn Allahabad which include women personnel arrived on a special military plane. They have been put up at the 1st Manipur Rifles campus.
62. Jul 21 Kanglaonline: The Federal Party of Manipur, FPM has joined the chorus of voices denouncing the state government for its failure to remove the Disturbed Area status under the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, 1958 from the state.
63. Jul 22 e-pao.net: The post-mortem report of Manorama Devi, whose alleged killing in the custody of Assam Rifles has led to mass protests in Manipur, has said, “there has not been any rape and molestation”, a Defence spokesman said here today. He also revealed that Manorama was a militant with expertise in making explosives. Kanglaonline: Union minister of state for home, Prakash Jaiswal, who was in Imphal to assess the turbulent situation, made no promises on the withdrawal of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act from Manipur, a major demand of the public. But he did say that the process of shifting of the Assam Rifles from Kangla Fort is likely to be completed by the end of this year.
64. Jul 26 The Assam Tribune: The 24 hours general strike which came into force from yesterday midnight hit normal life in Imphal today. The strike which will continue till today midnight was called by 32 social and voluntary organisations in the State against the forced cremation of Thangjam Manorama’s highly decomposed body here yesterday evening by the State authorities.
65. Jul 30 e-pao.net: Three Assam Rifles (19 AR) personnel were killed when well armed UGs ambushed them at Namthilok four Kms west of Litan PS.

66. Aug 04: http://www.rediff.com/news/2004/aug/04mani1.htm The army has launched Operation Hifazat II against PLA hideouts near the Myanmar border and has recently inducted another brigade into the state for these operations.
67. Aug 08 e-pao.net: The Centre today said the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) whose withdrawal has been sought by political parties and social organizations, was “required” in Manipur “till normalcy returns” to the State.
68. Aug 09 Kanglaonline: A total of 675 persons sustained injuries till date, primarily in police action in the public agitation demanding removal of Armed Forces Special Powers Act since July 16.
69. Aug 12 The Times of India: Manipur chief minister Okram Ibobi Singh could not convene a cabinet meeting on Wednesday to repeal the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act because of pressure from the Centre even as tension mounted across the state with tribals joining the agitation by calling a 12-hour bandh in five hill districts on Thursday. The Hindu: The Union Home Minister, Shivraj Patil, today said the Government was seized of the situation in Manipur and it was willing to do everything possible including shifting the Assam Rifles out of the Kangla Fort and its withdrawal from the State.
70. Aug 16 The Hindu: The Manipur Chief Minister, O. Ibobi Singh, in his address on Independence Day said the Government had withdrawn the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act from seven Assembly segments in the Imphal Municipal Area on a trial basis. He pointed out that Manorama Thangjam, who was killed, allegedly by security forces, was a "pucca" underground, and called upon the people not to get carried away by sentiments, and cooperate with the State Government in restoring peace and normality.
71. Aug 18 Kanglaonline: The Asst Comdt, SS Saka of 33 AR has taken a serious note and expressed disappointment over the utilization of civilian properties for attacks on security forces. Saka has demanded that the villagers be asked not to allow UGs to utilize their homes and other possessions as a medium for attacking security forces. Saka handed over his complaint to the Thoubal police station after UG attacks at the 33 AR posts at Keirak on August 16.
72. Aug 19 e-pao.net: The ongoing Thangjam Manorama Death Inquiry Commission has today examined Imphal West Dist SDPO N Gourakishore who abortively attempted to serve summons to five 17 Assam Rifles witnesses, Colonel Jagmohan Singh, Commandant Naik Subedar Digambar Dutt, Havildar Sureshkumar rifleman Ajit Singh and Lotha. The examination was conducted to prove that the AR authorities had refused to accept the summons.
73. Aug 20 The Telegraph: Gauhati High Court today temporarily exempted the commandant of the Assam Rifles’ 17th battalion, Col Jagmohan Singh, from appearing before the C. Upendra judicial commission appointed by the Manipur government to probe the killing of Thangjam Manorama.
74. Aug 23 Kanglaonline: Personnel of the Imphal east district police today seized sophisticated arms and ammunition from a room of the Manipur University boys hostel.
75. Aug 24 Kanglaonline: All Tribal Student’s Union Manipur has strongly condemned the alleged action of the 14th Assam Rifles which reportedly threatened some hill people and organised a rally in support of AFSPA. ATSUM maintained that there is no difference in opinion between the hill people and people in the valley against the draconian law.
76. Aug 28 Kanglaonline: At least three women including mother of an Indian Revenue Service, IRS officer were injured when unidentified youths lobbed a grenade into the room of the EE district electricity department.
77. Aug 30 Kanglaonline: The proceedings of the Justice (retd) C Upendra Commission of Inquiry probing the death of Thangjam Manorama will be held inside the premises of Central Jail, Imphal at 10.45 am as per the directive of the Gauhati High Court. During the proceedings, the four personnel of the 17 Assam Rifles will depose as witnesses to the alleged rape and murder of Thangjam Manorama Devi.
78. Aug 31 The Telegraph: Manipur today cautiously welcomed the army's offer to subject the Assam Rifles personnel accused of raping Thangjam Manorama to DNA tests.

79. Sep 02 e-pao.net: To protest the killing of Th Manorama Devi and Saichang village pastor Jamkholet Khongsai as well as endorsing the ongoing movement spearheaded by Apunba Lup to demand the complete withdrawal of AFSPA, bandhs and general strikes were enforced in various parts of the State today.
80. Sep 05 Times of India: The Apunba Lup, an apex body of 32 organisations spearheading protests for the scrapping of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, called the dawn-to-dusk shutdown to coincide with Patil's visit to the state capital Imphal.
81. Sep 07 Kanglaonline: a heavy exchange of fire took place between the 37th AR and underground outfits at Sita village in Chandel district.
82. Sep 09 Kanglaonline: Zomi Revolutionary Army alleged that almost all the villagers are put under siege by the UNLF laying mines on the periphery of the villages and forcing the people to supply essential commodities to its cadres.
83. Sep 14 The Hindu: Gen. Vij said the withdrawal of the AFSPA from Manipur could give rise to similar demands from other States in the North-East and Jammu and Kashmir. E-pao.net: The Army Court of Inquiry has urged the Chief Judicial Magistrate, Imphal to direct the OC of Irilbung Police Station to depose before it along with the DNA profile of the semen stain reported to have been detected on the petticoat of Th Manorama.
84. Sep 16 e-pao.net: Gauhati High Court Imphal bench has today issued notices to both the State and Central respondents pertaining to the alleged illegal occupation of Lighthouse Cinema Hall Churachandpur by Central Security forces. The petitioner Sangzuali Gangte is the proprietor of Light House Cinema Churachandpur. According to her petition, personnel of 32 Bn BSF without any prior information had been occupying the cinema hall from Jan 19 2002 till they were recently replaced by CRPF personnel.
85. Sep 17 The Hindu: Army Chief, N.C. Vij, said there were reports of Manorama’s underground connections. Referring to the post-mortem report he said: “It has come out clearly that there is no rape and I think this is one fact which must reach everyone.”
86. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1040921/asp/frontpage/story_3784147.asp# Unified Command Set up in Manipur Sep 20: The Centre has put together a unified headquarters for Manipur that is being shaped on the lines of the politico-military authority in Jammu and Kashmir. The unified headquarters will vest enormous responsibilities on the army whose divisional commander will function as the security adviser to chief minister Okram Ibobi Singh. The Manipur chief minister will be the chairman of the unified command council. Apart from Jammu and Kashmir, Assam is the only state to have a unified headquarters.
87. Sep 27 The Assam Tribune: A local court has rejected an application of the Army Court of Inquiry to direct Manipur Police for producing the DNA profile of semen found on the undergarments of Thangjam Manorama, who was arrested by Assam Rifles on July 10 and found dead the next day. The Army Court of Inquiry and the judicial commission of retired judge C Upendra are separately probing the death of Manorama Devi. The Army court wanted to compare the DNA profile of the semen found on Manorama's garments with those of blood samples of the Assam Rifles personnel.
88. Sep 28 Kanglaonline: At least one Assam Rifles jawan posted at Khudengthabi post was injured when some unidentified armed persons suspected to be UG cadres ambushed a foot-patrol party of the 37th AR.

89. Oct 01 Militants today ambushed CRPF patrols at Geljang, Tronglaobi and Kangbai areas of Manipur's Churachandpur district, killing a CRPF jawan and injuring 15 others, four seriously, official sources said. http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=253026 The militants opened fire from both sides of the hilly road running through the Geljang hill forest, about 60 km south of here, when CRPF personnel of 28th battalion were patrolling the area this morning.
90. Oct 02 e-pao.net: A team of the Imphal East Dist police under the supervision of its SP Kh Chandramani seized 1.5 Kgs of heroin from a man near Nambol Khorikphaba Ching. The man revealed that he had brought the drugs, worth about Rs one crore in the international market, from Myanmar.
91. Oct 04 e-pao.net: Personnel of 33 Assam Rifles apprehended three suspected UGs during search operation at Kakching Khunou and Umathel. The Telegraph: Hundreds of National Cadet Corps members of Manipur today took out a rally here demanding the withdrawal of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act and also the ban imposed by the Apunba Lup on NCC activities in the state.
92. Oct 06 Kanglaonline: The Army has moved the Gauhati High Court on October 4 seeking the court's intervention to instruct concerned authorities to accord sanction to carry out matching DNA samples with the semen stains found on Th Manorama's undergarments.
93. Oct 07 Kanglaonline: At least three suspected cadres of a yet to be identified underground group were shot dead by a combined team of the Imphal west and Bishnupur police commandos in an operation this morning on the banks of the Khordak river.
94. Oct 10 e-pao.net: The bodies of the six underground activists killed by security force personnel during an encounter at Hingjol village have been handed over to Sugnu police station today. According to police source, the bodies were handed over by one TP Singh said to be in-charge of Indian Army's 21 battalion special force (para-commando).
95. Oct 14 Kanglaonline: The newly deployed Army stationed near Churachandpur SP office is holding a meeting with authorities of eight villages located in the periphery of the district headquarters. The summons were served by one Lt K Singh of the Army to village chiefs of Bungmual, Mualveng, Pearsenmun, Zomi colony, Phailian, M Songjel, M Semuol, and Haijang for the said eeting.
96. Oct 15 Kanglaonline: The 24 hour state wide general strike call given by the Manipur People's Liberation Front (MPLF), the umbrella organization of PLA, PREPAK, and UNLF. The outfit calls the general strike to protest the merging of Princely state of Manipur into the Indian Union on this day in 1949. Telegraph: The unified command launched an operation at S. Nobin village in Bishenpur district to flush out militants. Early this morning the combined forces and militants traded gunfire for nearly half an hour. There was no report of casualty on any side. Police confirmed that the operation was launched jointly by the Bishenpur district police, Indian Reserve Battalion and Garhwal Rifles.
97. Oct 26 Kanglaonline: A major of the 27 Madras Regiment sustained leg injuries when troops of the regiment fell victim to a booby trap laid by underground outfits in between Joupi and Sajik Tampak, Chandel district. The injured major has been evacuated to Leimakhong Army hospital in a helicopter. 3 ultras were also killed in the operation.
98. Oct 27 The Assam Tribune: Twelve people, including two army jawans, were killed in encounters and militant strikes in Manipur since yesterday, official sources said today. Militants opened fire from wooded hillsides on army personnel leading to a firefight in which an army jawan of 19th Rajput Rifles, two insurgents and two civilians were killed at Tuilaiphai area in Churachandpur district. In another firefight with militants at Phoibi area in the same district, a jawan of 5th Gorkha Rifles was killed, the sources said.
99. Oct 28 The Assam Tribune: Villagers residing along the Chandel district of Manipur bordering Myanmar get precious stones from their Myanmarese counterparts in exchange for medicines, shoes, clothes and automobile parts. These gem items finally reach the Middle-east and other European countries after passing through Guwahati, one of the biggest markets of precious stones in India and Surat, the gem capital of India.
100. Oct 29 e-pao.net: Personnel of the 4th Assam Rifles gunned down a sergeant major of an underground outfit in between Koirengei Akham Leirak and Achanbigei five kms north east of Heingang PS.

101. Nov 01 Kanglaonline: Of the 32 organisations dubbed as "terrorists" under the newly promulgated Government of India ordinance, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Ordinance 2004, 10 are from the northeast region, and of these 10, six are Manipur based, and all of them are valley based. Interestingly, none of the Naga or Kuki underground organizations figure in the list of this ordinance.
102. Nov 03 The Assam Tribune: Reacting to a claim from a powerful outfit over heavy casualties on the part of the Indian armies launching 'Operation All Clear' under the 'Unified Command Structure' with the Chief Minister Okram Ibobi as chairman, a defense wing press statement said the claim made by the banned United National Liberation Front (UNLF) was just a figment of their imagination without any truth. A large number of underground cadres have been forced to relocate from their bases, with some of them even crossing the border to escape the Army's dragnet. Many cadres have also deserted their outfits following the offensive. http://www.thehindu.com/2004/11/03/stories/2004110302551300.htm
103. Nov 06 The Indian army says it has attacked more than 100 rebel bases in Manipur since Monday, killing more than 20 rebels and capturing 34. Given the duration of the current operation, however, the neutralisation of about 54 militants (20 killed and 34 arrested), as of November 6, out of an estimated strength of 2,000 cadres present in the area, is at best a modest achievement. Considering the claim that more than 100 militant hideouts have been attacked, the seizure of just 20 weapons indicates a long struggle ahead. The troika of the UNLF, PLA and PREPAK, a lone Kuki outfit KRA, appear to have evaded the brunt of the Army's offensive http://www.ocnus.net/cgi-bin/exec/view.cgi?archive=57&num=14924
104. Nov 08 "Security forces had been carrying out counter-insurgency operation in several areas of Manipur as a normal duty and at least 13 militants had been killed, 34 ultras apprehended and 20 weapons recovered since September", army PRO Maj. S D Goswami said, adding, "no joint operation with Myanmar is being carried out to eject insurgents." The spokesman said there was no particular name for the ongoing counter-insurgency operation although some papers had termed it as "Operation All Clear". The Army PRO denied that he had ever said 6000 troops had been deployed in the interior region or 100 rebel camps had been attacked by the Army since Monday last in Manipur. http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=260305
105. Nov 09 The Telegraph: Security forces in Manipur have stepped up counter-insurgency operations in the areas bordering Myanmar less than a month after Delhi signed an agreement with the junta for co-operation on security issues. Night curfew has been clamped in several areas of Churachandpur district, adjoining Myanmar, for a month to facilitate the operation.
106. Nov 10 The Assam Tribune: The Army yesterday busted a temporary 'General Headquarters' of the separatist People's Liberation Army (PLA) at Behang area on the Manipur-Myanmar border. Army personnel during counter-insurgency operations in the past four to five days destroyed PLA camps at Theigothang, Zou Khuman and its 'GHQ' at Behang, a Defence release said.
107. Nov 11 Kanglaonline: Two cadres of the underground People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak, PREPAK, formally surrendered to the state chief minister, O Ibobi Singh in a ceremony held this afternoon at the chief minister's bungalow. The United Naga Council, UNC, has called a ten-day long economic blockade on all the National Highways in the state from November 17 onwards against the state government's rejection of the 2001 census figures for some of the hill districts, particularly Senapati district. The Telegraph: Forced by the army-police-paramilitary combine to flee their hideouts along the Indo-Myanmar border in Churachandpur and Chandel districts, militant groups active in Manipur have shifted their focus to the valley districts. A newly opened BSF post in Imphal East district was today attacked by a group of militants.
108. Nov 13 Eighteen people, including two women and two children, were injured in a bomb blast in front of the Assam Rifles headquarters at Kangla Fort in the heart of Imphal while unidentified ultras attacked security personnel at Senapati and Churachandpur district in Manipur today. http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=261331
109. Nov 14 e-pao.net: Spelling out its agenda, the Kuki National Front (KNF) stated that the Kukis of India are suffering politically before the British rule in India and after India attained independence from the British. In a statement NL Daniel Haokip, information secretary of the Front said that in such circumstances, the outfit is working to achieve the political goal of the Kukis of India by seeking Kukiland that comprises of all the Kuki dominated areas under one administrative unit in the North Eastern region within the frame work of India's Constitution and articles.
110. Nov 18 The Telegraph: Armed with a letter from the Union home ministry about the Prime Minister's commitment to hand over Kangla Fort to the Manipur government during his visit to the state, chief minister Okram Ibobi Singh today asked the Assam Rifles to vacate the historical complex “completely” before Manmohan Singh's arrival.
111. Nov 21 The Hindu: It was a historic day for the people of Manipur when the Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, presided over a ceremony to hand over the Kangla Fort - located in the heart of the Imphal city - to the State Government. People applauded as the Assam Rifles Director-General, Lt. Gen. Bhupinder Singh, handed over the Fort's keys to the Manipur Chief Minister, Okram Ibobi Singh. The Kangla Fort was conquered by the British forces in 1891. The Assam Rifles came to the fort in 1915 and it has been in its use since then.
112. Nov 23 Kanglaonline: Speaking to mediapersons during an informal interaction, Col. Mukherjee of the 13th Jammu and Kashmir Rifles, said there is no such thing as forced labour of civilian population, asserting that wherever the troops go, they treat people generously, and extend all possible humanitarian services. Disclosing that civil administration offices will be formally reinstated in Singngat village, including SDO/BDO offices on November 27 next, he also informed that the 13 J&K Rifles will be organising a civic action programme to coincide with the occasion. The report of the commission of inquiry constituted to look into the circumstances of the killing of Th Manorama Devi by Assam Rifles troops on the night of July 10 has been submitted to the state government. However, as per the orders of the Gauhati High Court, the inquiry report or the findings is not to be published without the approval of the High Court.
113. Nov 28 Kanglaonline: Altogether 367 extremists belonging to various underground outfits were arrested and 79 such extremists were killed by state police and security forces while conducting counter insurgency operation during the period January to June, 2004.
114. Nov 30 Kanglaonline: The Kuki Movement for Human Rights, KMHR, has sent an urgent SOS to the state and Central governments over a quit notice allegedly served by NSCN(IM) militants on the residents of some Kuki villages in Tamenglong district. The Assam Tribune: Defence spokesperson Maj. S.D. Goswami said a camp set up by the banned Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL) was overrun during a raid last weekend. The army launched the offensive immediately after a unified command structure on the lines of the politico-military authority in Jammu and Kashmir was put in place. An army brigade subsequently moved into Churachandpur to intensify operations with the assistance of two BSF battalions and the police. Official sources said the Army had detected at least 120 militant camps in interior parts of the three districts by using Remote Sensing Satellite System.

115. Dec 02 The Telegraph: “We cannot accept the Prime Minister's offer to review the armed forces act and replace it with a more humane law. The people of Manipur are reeling under atrocities committed by the security forces under this act. Therefore, we will not accept anything less than a total repeal of this draconian act," Ramani Devi, one of the 12 women who stunned the nation by staging a nude protest in front of the gate to Kangla Fort in July, said at a public meeting convened by the Apunba Lup, a committee of 32 organisations spearheading the agitation against the legislation.
116. Dec 03 Kanglaonline: 4 CRPF personnel and 3 civilians were injured when militants attacked a CRPF patrol with a powerful bomb at Khurai Lamlong bazaar in Imphal East district.
117. Dec 04 e-pao.net: PIB Defence Wing admitted that there was a brief exchange of fire between an Army patrol and the militants near Kaiphundai, while the security personnel were carrying out Area domination patrol. The militants escaped through the jungle, it added. However, the claim of MPA that two army jawans were killed is totally baseless and mere propaganda to boost the morale of their cadres who are gradually getting disillusioned due to the series of reverses suffered by them recently, said the statement.
118. Dec 09 Kanglaonline: The Committee to Review the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, 1958, said today that it will be visiting Manipur from December 27 to elicit views and public opinion on the Act. Fresh clashes between rival underground groups in some areas of Tousem subdivision of Tamenglong district has resulted in an exodus of villagers from these areas. Fighting broke out between NSCN (IM) cadres and a combined group of NSCN (K), UNLF and KNF in the region.
119. Dec 11 Kanglaonline: Manipur police killed a cadre of the banned People's Liberation Army in an encounter at Lalambung Makhong. The Assam Tribune: Three columns of 35 Assam Rifles have been rushed to Tamenglong district following clashes between different militant groups of Assam, Nagaland, and Manipur. The AR men are also accompanied by personnel of Tamenglong police. The security men and state government have distributed blankets, food, and ensured lodging to the fleeing tribals.
120. Dec 11 The Telegraph: "Operations against Northeast rebels seem imminent in Myanmar. We have concrete reports that the Myanmar authorities have started deploying troops along the border," Lt Gen. Jamwal told The Telegraph after inaugurating the Barkhopa high school building constructed by the army.
121. Dec 13 The Assam Tribune: About 200 villagers from Manipur today fled to neighbouring Myanmar following heavy exchange of fire between the Army and separatist Manipur People's Army in interior areas of Chandel district.
122. Dec 14 The Telegraph: Assam Rifles units from Kohima and Dimapur will soon move to Chandel, Churachandpur and Tamenglong districts of Manipur to strengthen the security deployment in the neighbouring state. The 79 brigade of the army is in Sajik Tampak, while the 57 Mountain Division is in Leimakong. Besides, there are two infantry brigades, sources said. The new Assam Rifles battalions were raised in Arunachal Pradesh, but the state does not require them because the Indo-Tibetan Border Police take care of its international border. Kanglaonline: The UNLF claims of 22 SF persons killed and scores injured and an overall tally of 75 SF persons killed and 70 injured is just ridiculous and baseless, an Army statement said. The statement, quoting Army authorities further said that, in the last three months, since the Army has started anti-UG operations, Army has suffered only five fatal casualties and no officer has been killed.
123. IMPHAL, DEC 14 (PTI) The Army today said choppers and not helicopter gunships were being used in the ongoing operation to flush out Manipur People's Army (MPA) insurgents from interior areas of Manipur. The Army also denied another MPA claim of having killed 75 army men in the current operations in Chandel, Bishenpur and Churachandpur districts of Manipur. A Defence release said only five Army personnel were killed in the last three months while 40 militants were killed and 78 apprehended with 59 weapons seized. The major militant bases at Theigotang, Sailliutak, Khongtal and Sehlon have been destroyed in the current operation, the release said, adding that insurgents had been forced to move out to fringe areas. http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=267376
124. Dec 15 Kanglaonline: 110 villagers from Chandel district who fled to Myanmar following heavy fighting between the Indian Army and underground militants since the last one week were handed over to the concerned subdivisional officers of Moreh town by the Myanmarese authorities. E-pao.net: 8 well armed cadres of the KNA stopped two passenger buses coming from Sanakeithel to Imphal yesterday at a spot in between Molnom and Pangshong. The armed men then picked out the Meiteis and Tangkhuls and lined them up separately killing one Tangkhul and one Kuki elder.
125. Dec 22 Kanglaonline: The UNLF, in a lengthy statement, said the shooting of Dr. N Bijoy VC Manipur University and registrar Dr RK Ranjan, by the KYKL on charges of corruption at the university was an act of grudge.
126. Dec 27 e-pao.net: The proscribed KYKL today denied that the VC, MU Dr N Bijoy and Registrar RK Ranjan were wrongly punished on Dec 17 as alleged by UNLF. Kanglaonline: In the aftermath of the killing of five personnel, including one sub-inspector of Imphal east commandos in an ambush yesterday at Napet Pali, a combined team of state security forces and central paramilitary forces conducted a huge search and cordon operation in surrounding areas.
127. Dec 28 The Sangai Express: Chairman of the Review Committee, set up to study the provisions of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, Justice BB Jeevan Reddy today said that they have come here with an open mind and asserted that they can recommend the repeal of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act.
128. Dec 29 The Sangai Express: Issuing a stern warning to all Govt Depts to abide by the directives given by PREPAK, the outfit today claimed that Laishram Chura Singh, finance advisor to the Electricity Dept, was punished with a bullet in the leg on December 26 for not heeding the conditions imposed by the outfit.
129. Dec 30 The North East Tribune: Under Operation New Kangleipak the KYKL has abducted former Principal and a former Cashier of Mayang Langjing Higher Secondary School on charges of siphoning off Rs 1,96,626 from the school fund.
130. Dec 31 The Sangai Express: Despite the boycott call given by the hard liners within the Apunba Lup, the Review Committee which arrived here on December 27 wrapped up their three days mission on a satisfactory note today.

131. Jan 16 (2005) security forces have recovered 77 weapons, most of them AK 47 rifles, from a hideout of militant outfit People' Liberation Army in Churchandrapur district of Manipur near the border with Myanmar in raids in the past few days, defence sources said today. The Myanmarese army by taking action against the militants had been cooperating in the flush-out operation. http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=273772
132. Wrt above: On the achievements of the Army since the commencement of operation last year, Dwivedi claimed the elimination of well-established camps of UNLF at Sehlon and Vamsengdung, PLA camps in Khongtal, Khongkhai and Theigotang and KYKL camp at Siallutak area. During the past one year, altogether 126 militants have been killed while 459 were apprehended with the recovery of 250 weapons, he added. http://imphal.cjb.net/news/news_item.asp?NewsID=14&m=2&y=2005
133. Army using UAVs to track insurgents in North-East http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/980754.cms

End Note:

The insurgency in Manipur is perhaps the most intractable in all of the northeast. The writ of the state government has been absent from large parts of the state for long periods of time and there is a measure of popular support to the Meiti groups in the Imphal valley. Some of this support stems from terror—the UGs intervene in the most mundane administrative matter and issue diktats, arrest the corrupt (or more probably the uncooperative), and carry out bloody punishments under the nose of the government. However there have been protests against the AFSPA (the act in place since 1980), the occupation of the historic Kangla Fort by the Assam Rifles, and the killing of UG cadres (claimed as innocent civilians) in the past. Rumors surrounding the manner of killing of Thangjam Manorama brought things to a head and mass protests continued through the better part of the year, ending only with the visit of the Prime Minister and the return of Kangla Fort to the state government. It mattered little that Manorama had been a PLA activist and that rape allegations against AR personnel had been proven to be false.

The ceasefire with the Naga groups in Nagaland does not operate in Manipur and the NSCN factions, along with the local Kuki and Hmar groups, have fought bloody conflicts with the security forces and with each other throughout the hill districts. Kuki and Naga settlements in Assam’s Karbi Anglong district create conflicts with Karbis—towards the close of the year three columns of the Assam Rifles had to be sent to the Tamenglong district to halt clashes between the different ethnic insurgent groups in that border region.

After operations against insurgents fleeing from Bhutan and the hunting out of ULFA cadres from camps in Nagaland, coupled with a drive by the Myanmar army against ULFA and NSCN (K) bases in its territory, the army’s focus appears to have turned on Manipur. The 44 Mountain Brigade was moved from Nagaland to Sajik Tampak (Chandel district) in April and later to Churachandpur—its place being taken by the newly-raised 79 Infantry Brigade. The 59 Mountain Brigade was always present in Leimakhong where, some reports suggest, the parent formation of these brigades, the 57 Mountain Division headquarters moved from Silchar (Masimpur cantonment). Additional AR units raised in Arunachal were also moved to Manipur.
To oversee the operations a unified civil-military command along the lines of those in J&K and Assam was set up in September. Operations continued through to the next year but contrary to local media reports they had no special name and were part of Op Hifazat II. Simultaneously the Myanmar army raided camps of Manipur insurgents in its territory. It is believed that additional AR units will guard the border with Myanmar in due course after fencing has been completed.